Investigation of the feasability of renewables in meeting the Moroccan primary energy demand.

Madomercandy, Remeche (2007) Investigation of the feasability of renewables in meeting the Moroccan primary energy demand. PhD thesis, Napier University.

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Energy is undoubtedly the driving force at the core of the development of any nation. There
is a direct relation between per capita income and energy consumption. The way this energy
is produced, supplied and consumed, affects the local and global environment and is therefore
a key issue in sustainable development.
The Kingdom of Morocco which is not an oil-producing country is heavily dependent on
imported energy to meet its energy demand. Morocco relies on imports for nearly 90 % of its
hydrocarbon needs, with the total cost of its imports fluctuating between US$1 billion and
US$1.5 billion per year. Electricity supplies are based largely on the combustion of imported
coal, which is mainly obtained from South Africa, and imported crude oil from Saudi Arabia,
Iran, Iraq and Nigeria, together with electricity imports from Spain and Algeria. This
dependence has had an unusually large impact on its economy and environment, affecting
foreign exchange, the national debt and government revenues and investment budgets
according to the Moroccan Government.
In Morocco, the renewable energy sources such as solar energy, wind energy, and biomass
are plentiful, widely distributed and environmentally attractive. These resources add no net
contributions to the atmospheric carbon dioxide and add no heat to the global environment.
Levels of solar insolation exceed 5.00 kWhJm2/day on a horizontal plane in much of the
country throughout much of the year, wind resources are favourable for both small scale and
wind farm developments in some locations, hydro resources for micro applications are for the
most part unexplored but likely to be available in the mountainous regions with good
precipitation. Whilst bio-energy reserves are scarce throughout much of the arid and semi
arid regions of the country, urban waste is abundant and offers good opportunity for processmg.
The objective of this thesis is to investigate the feasibility of renewable energy sources in
meeting Morocco's primary energy demand.
In this thesis, the energy, electricity, environmental and renewable energy budget for
Morocco against the global backdrop is discussed and the related institutional,
implementation and policy frameworks including assessment of barriers are analysed. The
thesis also addresses renewable energy resource assessment which is a prerequisite to
undertake any meaningful exercise to integrate renewable energy technologies into rural
energy plan within the overall national energy scenario in Morocco.
Furthermore, a comprehensive and scientific model for all important renewable resources
such as solar, wind, biomass and micro-hydro throughout the country has been developed,
which is a starting point for all future initiatives including private sector participation and
market development in this sector.
The proposed renewable energy plan could set Morocco on the path to a sustainable energy
system with associated economic benefits setting a model for other African and developing
countries to follow. The plan clearly contributes to the envisaged purpose of increasing
renewable energy contribution in the primary energy balance bringing significant social and
environmental benefits into the process.
Plentiful wind and solar radiation resources and the proximity to Europe put Morocco in a
strong position. Import of technology from and export of electricity to Europe could become
a promlSlng strategy to limit the global greenhouse effect and to boost the Moroccan economy.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Energy; sustainable development; Morocco; renewable enrgy; solar power; wind energy; biomass fuel; environmental impact; economy;
University Divisions/Research Centres: Faculty of Engineering, Computing and Creative Industries > School of Engineering and the Built Environment
Dewey Decimal Subjects: 300 Social sciences > 330 Economics > 333 Economics of land & energy
Library of Congress Subjects: H Social Sciences > HD Industries. Land use. Labor
Item ID: 4629
Depositing User: Mrs Lyn Gibson
Date Deposited: 06 Sep 2011 18:04
Last Modified: 06 Sep 2011 18:04

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