Shoulder and hip roll changes during 200-m front crawl swimming.

Psycharakis, Stelios and Sanders, Ross (2008) Shoulder and hip roll changes during 200-m front crawl swimming. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 40 (12). pp. 2129-2136. ISSN 0195-9131

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Purpose: To determine accurately the magnitude and changes in shoulder roll (SR) and hip roll (HR) throughout a 200m maximum front crawl swim and whether SR and HR were associated with swimming velocity (V). Bilateral roll asymmetries and timing differences between SR and HR were also investigated.
Methods: Ten male swimmers of national/international level performed a maximum 200m front crawl swim. Performance was recorded with four below and two above water synchronised cameras and four stroke cycles (SCs) were analysed (one for each 50m). SR and HR were calculated separately.
Results: Swimmers rolled their shoulders significantly more than their hips (p<0.001). V generally decreased during the test and HR was significantly higher in SC4 than in SC1 (p=0.001). SR had a negative and significant correlation with V in each SC (-0.663≤r≤-0.634, 0.037≤p≤0.049), with the exception of SC4. Although several roll profiles existed, left side SR dominance was identified, with swimmers rolling their shoulders significantly more to the left than the right side (0.000≤p≤0.022). Despite individual differences in the timings of maximum SR and HR to the left and right sides, no consistent pattern was found for the group.
Conclusion: Separate calculation is required for SR and HR to explore their influence on front crawl swimming. Faster swimmers tended to roll their shoulders less than slower swimmers. The increase in HR as the test progressed is possibly associated with a decrease in stroke frequency and increase in SC duration. Given that all swimmers were right-handed, right-breathing dominant and that SR was significantly greater to the left than the right side, it seems that factors related to handedness might affect SR symmetry in swimming.

Item Type: Article
Print ISSN: 0195-9131
Uncontrolled Keywords: shoulder; hip roll; front crawl; 200-metre; swimming; Biomechanics; kinematics; body roll; velocity; asymmetry; swim
University Divisions/Research Centres: Faculty of Health, Life & Social Sciences > School of Life Sciences
Dewey Decimal Subjects: 600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health > 612 Human physiology
700 Arts & recreation > 790 Sports, games & entertainment > 797 Aquatic & air sports
Library of Congress Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GV Recreation Leisure
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC1200 Sports Medicine
Item ID: 2470
Depositing User: Dr. Stelios Psycharakis
Date Deposited: 26 Jan 2009 11:44
Last Modified: 14 Jan 2013 16:42

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